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Title Energy Budgeting of Paddy-Pulse Cropping System in Bhadrak District of Odisha and Assessment of Emission from Paddy Straw Burning
Author Name Bhabani Shankar Dash

Energy auditing of an existing production system helps to assess its energy-use and energy efficiency. The average input energy of paddy-black gram (PB) cropping system (19,862.01 MJ.ha-1) was higher than paddy-green gram (PG) (18,972.34 MJ.ha-1) cropping system in Bhadrak, Odisha. Harvesting and transport operation required highest operational energy for PG (35.57%) and PB (41.20%) farms; while, threshing and winnowing consumed the second highest input energy with 21.34% and 22.71% for PG and PB farms, followed by land preparation with 21.87% and 20.10% respectively. Linear regression data of PG and PB systems showed significant effect (p<0.05) of predictors with R2 values of 87.70% and 82.20% for total output energy and grain energy, respectively; confirming a good fit among the data. The output energy of PB cropping system was 13.91% higher than that of PG cropping system. The PB cropping system, with energy utilisation efficiency (EUE) of 10.31 and 11.82, was more energy-efficient than PG system with EUE of 9.32 and 11.01 for “NC” and “C” farms, respectively. The net energy return of PBC farm was highest with 2,04,505.31 MJ.ha-1. Amongst various pollutants emitted from paddy straw burning in Odisha; CO2 (5,51,296.0 Mg.yr-1), CO (13,102.72 Mg.yr-1), and TPM (4,908.80 Mg.yr-1) had highest share. The quantity of major GHGs (N2O, CH4) released into the atmosphere through paddy straw burning was estimated as 26.43 Mg.yr-1 and 453.12 Mg.yr-1, respectively. Use of straw baler can prevent straw burning, and reduce emission from paddy fields by 2805.54 kg.ha-1 of CO2 and 66.69 kg.ha-1 of CO, 5.96 kg.ha-1 of NOx, 24.98 kg.ha-1 of TPM. Alternatively, use of mulcher can also reduce emission from paddy fields by 2924.44 kg.ha-1 of CO2 and 69.51 kg.ha-1 of CO, 6.21 kg.ha-1 of NOx, 26.04 kg.ha-1 of TPM. The cost of operation of a baler and mulcher were 8,617.0 ? ha-1 and 2,543.0 ? ha-1, respectively. Input energy and energy saved in paddy fields by baler were 820.0 MJ.ha-1 and 16,928.0 MJ.ha-1; and 266.0 MJ.ha-1 and 24,458.0 MJ.ha-1 by mulcher, respectively.

Keyword Energy auditing , paddy-pulse rotation , energy indicators , farm mechanisation , straw burning ,
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