A comparative study on incorporation of green manure crop (Sesbania aculeata) with a newly developed tractor operated biomass incorporator (BI) was conducted in contrast to prevailing technologies. Average depth of soil cut with BI (174.7 mm) was significantly higher than rotavator (71.3 mm), disc harrow (114 mm) and disc harrow plus cultivator (121 mm) at crop growth stage I (36 DAS) and stage II (50 DAS). Size of cut with BI (202 mm and 326.5 mm) was significantly lower than disc harrow, disc harrow pluscultivator and mould board plough at crop growth stage I and II. Field capacity of BI and conventional mould board plough was significantly lower than rotavator and disc harrow because of smaller width of coverage of two-bottom implements. Fuel consumption was significantly higher for rotavator at both stages of crop growth. Pulverization index was lowest with rotavator (6.70 mm and 6.98 mm), followed by BI, disc harrow plus cultivator, disc harrow and mould board plough at both crop stages. Bulk density index was significantly high for BI, followed by rotavator, mould board plough, disc harrow plus cultivator and disc harrow at both crop stages. Mixing index with BI (97.1 %) was significantly higher than all other implements. Biomass incorporator resulted in analogous mixing index at both crop stages. For all other implements, decrease in mixing index was recorded.
In the present study, biometric properties of chilli (Pusa Jwala) and tomato (Abhilash) plug seedlings of 30-, 45- and 60-day old relevant to design of vegetable transplanter were investigated. The parameters determined were weight, stem diameter, height, critical canopy diameter, drop shatter height, compressive strength and coefficient of static friction of the plug seedlings. The average weight of chilli seedlings was 13.1, 15.2 and 15.9 g for 30-, 45- and 60-day old, respectively; whereas, that for tomato seedling was 13.4, 14.1 and 14.5 g for 30-, 45- and 60-day old, respectively. The optimum drop shatter height with minimum shattering of plug media for both seedlings was 400 mm. The critical canopy diameter for chilli and tomato seedling was 68.2 mm and 70.4 mm, respectively. The mean coefficient of static friction for canvas belt, mild steel, aluminium and galvanized iron varied from 0.63 to 0.89. The compressive strength of stem of seedlings ranged from 1.2 kgf to 1.6 kgf. These properties of vegetable seedlings are critical in designing and selection of different components of vegetable transplanter.
Snack bars (SB) were developed using nutritionally rich composite mixes with honey (T1); honey, jaggery and corn syrup (T2); jaggery (T3); honey and jaggery (T4); and analysed for nutritional, functional textural and sensory properties (fuzzy logic) in comparison with a commercial bar (RB). The moisture content of T3 (4.0 %) was low, and at par with RB (3.7 %). The protein content was significantly (p< 0.05) higher than RB with T1 and T3 containing 10.7 g.100g-1 of protein. Fat content (g.100g-1) ranged from 9.7 (T1) to 11.3 (RB); while T4 (8.47) showed the highest fibre (g.100g-1), followed by T2 (8.34). T3 had highest P (244 mg.100g-1) and Fe (5.5 mg.100g-1). Functional components of SB were significantly higher than RB. T4 showed highest phenolics (162.5 GAE.100g-1), T3 showed flavonoids (1.02 QE mg.100g-1) and anti-oxidants (92 % RSA). T3 had highest hardness (1.39 N) and lowest (41.18 N) cutting strength. Fuzzy logic showed order of preference of Good (RB, T3) and Medium (T2, T1 and T4). Mouth-feel and flavour were rated as highly important, while aroma, crispiness and colour were rated as important. Flavour and mouth-feel of all snack bars were found to be acceptable, except for T2 that had least acceptable mouth feel when compared to other attributes. The acceptability of crispiness of jaggery bar indicated that consumers accepted bars with greater hardness rather than a soggy or soft product. From nutritional, functional textural, and sensory analysis, T3 was found to be the best among all bars tested.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and regulates blood pressure, heart rate, sensation of pain and anxiety, lipid levels in serum and assist in insulin secretion to prevent diabetes. GABA, a bioactive component is known to accumulate in rice during germination process. In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the effect of germination process on GABA levels in selected local rice cultivars (Swarna and Lalat) of Odisha, India. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used for determination of GABA concentration in germinated brown rice (GBR), white rice (WR) and brown rice (BR). Results showed that GABA content in GBR is 1.5 and 2 times more than that in BR and WR, respectively.
Top heat loss coefficient (Ut) is required for thermal performance evaluation of a box-type solar cooker. In the present work, the values of Ut were obtained from outdoor experiments undertaken to determine the First Figure of Merit (F1). Ut was found to vary from summer to winter. A comparison of values of Ut obtained from the experiments with the values obtained from analytical equation showed the same trend. The effect of use of measured value of outer glass cover temperature (T2), or estimated value of T2, on Ut computed by analytical equation was also studied. The measurement of T2 was found to be not essential for obtaining Ut by this equation. As obtaining T2 by experiments also involves uncertainties, one might prefer to use existing correlations for T2.
Energy performance of a 3 kWp solar photovoltaic (PV) system installed on the roof of an urban house in Coimbatore, India was evaluated. Performance indices as electricity output, system yields, performance ratio, system efficiency, and capacity factor were assessed from January 2017 to December 2017. The rooftop PV system supplied 4047 kWh of electricity to the grid during the year 2017 with a monthly average electricity output of 337.25 kWh. Annual average final yield compared with different PV systems in India was found to be 3.7 h.day-1. The analysis showed that the average PV system efficiency was 10.94 per cent. The performance ratio and capacity factor of the PV system were 0.72 and 15.41 %, respectively. The results could be used as a benchmark for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems in regions with similar climate.
An experiment was carried out under open field conditions on black cotton soil at Agriculture College, Nagpur to study the performance of different types of emitters and filters while using irrigation water of different qualities for different periods of operation. Eight treatments comprising of irrigation water quality as main treatment [domestic treated sewage water (DTSW) from a phytorid sewage treatment plant and deep open well water (WW)], sub-treatments comprising of emitter type (inline and online) and time of operation (60 h and 120 h) of drip system were planned. Gravel filter, followed by disk filter, was used to filter water of different quality. Partial clogging percentage of gravel filter was higher in case of DTSW. Emission uniformity coefficient decreased rapidly in DTSW compared to WW. Mean discharge reduction percentage was 13.23 % in gravel filter, and 18.72 % in disk filter. Emitter’s emission uniformity percentage in WW was better than in DTSW. The manual operation time (i.e. time interval between two consecutive maintenance events) for disk filter was shorter than gravel filter in both treatments. Domestic treated sewage water could be used for crop production with proper maintenance of filter, lateral and emitters.
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of subsurface drain spacing and depth on hydrological properties of waterlogged Vertisols under sugarcane in Sangli district of Maharashtra during 2012-13 to 2013-14. A total of 12 treatments consisting four drain spacings of 10, 20, 30 and 40 m and three drain depths of 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 m were laid in experimental plot. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil was determined before and after harvesting of sugarcane. Drainable porosity of soil corresponding to water table depth was determined from water table drawdown and drain discharge measurements after rainfall. It was found that the closely-spaced and deep drain recorded better hydrological properties of soil (drainage coefficient, water table depth, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and drainable porosity) as compared to widely-spaced and deep drains. But closely-spaced drains increased the initial adoption cost of subsurface drainage system, drained excess water, and leached more nutrients. Drain spacing and depth of either 40 m and 1-1.25 m, or 30 m and 1 m confirmed the recommended basic guidelines for Indian subsurface drainage design with optimum drainage coefficient of 2 mm.day-1 for semi-arid regions and drain spacing between 30-50 m and 1.2 m depth for fine-textured soils.