Abstract A four-row IARI seed-cum-fertilizer plot drill developed at ICAR-IARI, New Delhi for permanent raised bed system was evaluated under pearl millet-wheat cropping system. The machine was fitted with two Oyjord metering mechanisms with four outlets for metering seed and fertilizer. Successful seeding on raised beds with pearl millet crop residue was achieved by first cutting the plant residue with a plain disc coulter, followed by seed drilling in narrow slit furrows opened by double disk furrow openers. The plot drill required 33.56 kW tractor for its operation in sandy loam soils, and two operators to feed measured quantity of seed and fertilizer. Field capacity of the plot drill was 0.17 ha.h-1 at 1.5 km.h-1 forward speed of operation. Field machine index, field efficiency and cost of operation were 72.72, 80 % and ` 648/- per hour, respectively. The plant stands of wheat sown on permanent raised beds with the developed plot drill were significantly higher than with precision plot drill.
ABSTRACT Evaluation of rheological properties of reconstituted mango peel powder (MPP) cv. Neelum at different particle sizes and sample concentrations was investigated. The combined effect of sample (MPP: water) concentration (1:4, 1:5, 1:6) and particle size obtained from sieve openings (420 μm, 355 μm, 250 μm and 125 μm) were evaluated on the rheological parameters (yield stress, flow behaviour index and consistency index). Lightness (L) and yellowness (b) increased while greenness (a) decreased with reduction in particle size. The increase in sample concentration was associated with increase in shear stress values.Rheological characterization was performed on the basis of coefficient of determination (R2) and other model parameters. For the samples (particle size of 250μm and 125μm), the Herschel-Bulkey model (R2≥0.831), Power law (R2≥0.803) and Casson law (R2≥0.832) fitted well to shear stress-shear rate data.
ABSTRACT A study was conducted to determine the effect of microwave pre-treatment on de-husking characteristics and quality parameters of foxtail millet. Foxtail millet was treated at three microwave power levels (900 W, 720 W and 540 W) for three different exposure time (120 s, 100 s and 80 s). Increase in grain surface temperature from 64.68˚C to 81.66˚C and decrease in de-husking time from 191 s to 88 s were observed with increase in microwave power level and exposure time. De-husking yield increased initially with increase in microwave power and exposure time, reaching a maximum of 85.64 % (720 W, 120 s), and thereafter decreased. The lowest de-husking yield of 72.12 % was observed at 900 W and 100 s exposure time. The increase in broken content from 0.20 % to 19.61 %, and reduction in head yield from 99.80 % to 85.40 % was observed with increase in microwave power and exposure time. The colour change was not significant (@ p≤0.05) in all the treatments. Cooking time of the de-husked grain decreased with increase in microwave power level and exposure time from 544 s to 442 s. De-husking yield of 91.97 % was predicted at optimal conditions of 732 W microwave power and 80 s exposure time.
ABSTRACT The conditions for degree of pearling of finger millets were optimised based on its quality attributes. Empirical models were developed to predict quality parameters for different sets of milling conditions of dispersed density (430 kg.m-3, 495 kg.m-3, 560 kg.m-3), residence time (10 min, 12 min, 14 min) and roller speed (1000 rpm, 1200 rpm, 1400 rpm) for both untreated and hydrothermally treated finger millet. It was found that hydrothermal treatment could improve pearling efficiency and reduce anti-nutrients while retaining nutritional components to some extent. A model correlating the effect of degree of pearling with pearling efficiency, protein, tannin and calcium content of hydrothermally treated finger millets was also developed with a satisfactory level of accuracy (R2 = 0.997). This equation served to determine the required degree of pearling for any given set of milling conditions. At optimized quality parameters, the degree of pearling for finger millet was 7.4 per cent.
ABSTRACT A study was undertaken to develop and apply Thomas-Fiering (T-F) model for generation of synthetic streamflow of Jakham river, Rajasthan. Streamflow data of 40 years (June,1975 to May, 2015) was used, of which 360 month-data (June,1975 to May, 2005) were used to develop the model and 120 month-data (June, 2005 to May, 2015) were used to predict the streamflow. Performance of the model was evaluated using four statistical criteria, viz. correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), modified Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (MNSE), and modified index of agreement (MIA).The results showed satisfactory performance of the model in generating synthetic monthly streamflow based on R, RMSE, MNSE and MIA values of 0.73, 28.47×106 m3, 0.456 and 0.73, respectively. The developed model was used to generate 100-year synthetic streamflows.
ABSTRACT Land-use change due to urbanization is continuously decreasing agricultural and forest lands that has important implications on the sustainable livelihood of the inhabitants of a watershed. In this study, land-use maps of Patiala-Ki-Rao watershed that is located in Shivalik foot-hills in Mohali district, Punjab were generated in GIS environment using Landsat imageries for the years 2006 and 2016 with overall classification accuracy and Kappa statistic of above 90 % and 0.9, respectively. The analysis of land-use maps indicated that the area under all land-uses decreased over a decade, except built-up land that increased by 372.27 ha (112.04 %) mainly due to urbanisation in the watershed. The change detection matrix revealed that out of 906.98 ha under agricultural land in 2006, 197.43 ha were mainly converted to built-up land. Likewise, from forest cover of 3462.21 ha in 2006, 151.11 ha were converted to agricultural land and 75.05 ha to built-up land. These land-use changes, if continued, may cause a serious threat to watershed resources, and hence calls for proper land-use policy formulation.
ABSTRACT Rice production in India needs to be increased to meet the future food demand of the ever- growing population and under the constraints of land, water, climate and other socio-environmental factors. Rice is the staple food in India, and needs maximum water among cereal crops. Improved rice cultivation practices (RCP) such as System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Alternate Wetting Drying (AWD), Bund Plugging (BP) and Raised Bed (RB) could potentially increase the water productivity over conventional (CON) rice cultivation practice. Field studies were conducted to estimate water productivity (WP) of these improved rice cultivation practices at Kharagpur during the kharif season of 2014 and 2015. Highest grain yield was recorded in SRI practice (5.57-5.60 t.ha-1) among all RCPs. Bund plugging practice showed the highest WP and statistically similar yield to SRI. Maximum irrigation water saving could be made with BP (44.8-60.1 %) among other RCPs, as compared to the conventional practice. It was concluded that BP is the best management practice with highest water productivity, irrigation water saving and commendable yield.
ABSTRACT Two identical units of a hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar dryer designed and constructed at ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, were used to dry Indian jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana) fruit, one operated under natural and the other under forced convection modes. The fruits were dried to safe moisture content (24 %) in a period of 192 h in forced convection mode, and in 240 h in natural convection mode with drying load of 18 kg. There was a significant difference in performance of the dryer under forced and natural convection mode. The average thermal efficiency of solar energy utilization under forced convection mode was higher (16.7 %) than that of natural convection solar dryer (15.6 %). Logarithmic drying model was suitable for describing the thin layer drying behaviour of the fruit. Effective moisture diffusivity of forced convection dryer was 3.34 × 10-7 m2.s-1. Economic evaluation of the solar dryer indicated high value of IRR (54.5 %), and low value of payback period (2.26 years), suggesting the dryer to be cost efficient.