Tillage practices influence the soil physical parameters, which consequently affect the yield of a crop and provide solution against environmental hazards. A study was undertaken to comprehend the effects of broad bed former-cum-seeder on crop parameters, grain and biomass yield, cost-economics and energetics of operation. Simultaneous operation of tractor operated rotary-assisted broad bed former-cum-seeder, developed at ICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, was compared with sequential operation of conventional seed drill on broad beds and rotary tilling on flatbed in black cotton soil for wheat cultivation. Though higher germination of seeds (183 per m2) was observed with simultaneous operation of bed making and seeding by rotary-assisted broad bed former-cum-seeder, but the differences in yield among treatments were insignificant. The input energy requirement in first crop year (17,710 MJ.ha-1) was marginally higher than that in conventional method (17,445 MJ.ha-1). It decreased by 378 MJ.ha-1 compared to conventional system in the second crop year. The lowest average cost of operation (2607 ` ha-1) in simultaneous operation of bed forming and seeding in the first year, followed by maintaining permanent beds in subsequent years led to an additional income of 13,980 ` ha-1 over farmers’ practice. Rotary-assisted broad bed former-cum-seeder thus has the potential to boost the income of the farmers and better energy management.
Rotavator has been increasingly used in agricultural fields. Under abrasive conditions for ground engaging tools, rotavator blades require frequent replacement resulting to increasing machine downtime and maintenance cost. Electric spark coating (ESC) technique was evaluated on two different commercially available blades with tungsten carbide, Stellite-21 and chromium carbide coating materials to improve their life. Coating materials were applied with three different thicknesses on the blades.Wear loss of the second blade with tungsten carbide 4th mode treatment was about 0.80 % per hour less than the other treatments for both blades. Hardness (58.33 HRA) of the second blade with chromium carbide 4th mode treatment was highest among all treatments and blades. The build-up height with chromium carbide 6th mode treatment was 160.8 µm.
Response surface methodology (RSM) using a D-optimal mixture design was employed for optimisation of formulation for production of a maize-soy-apple pomace based extruded snack. Effects of ingredients levels as maize (50–70 %), defatted soy flour (10–30 %) and apple pomace (10–30 %) on the physical properties like bulk density, expansion ratio, colour, water absorption index and water solubility index, sensory and specific mechanical energy of snacks were investigated. Significant regression equations that explained the effects of different percentages of maize, soy and apple pomace on all response variables were determined. The coefficients of determination, R2, of all response variables were higher than 0.90. Adequate precision for developed model of all responses was higher than 9.0, and corresponding CV was less than 1.9 per cent. Based on the given criteria for optimisation, the basic formulation for production of maize-soy-apple pomace extruded snack with desired sensory quality was obtained by incorporating with 70.0 % maize, 14.57 % soy and 15.43 % apple pomace.
Rice-bean (Vignaumbellata) is a non-conventional, under utilized and multipurpose crop of South and South-East Asia. Eleven rice-bean varieties were studied for their colour, bean area, bean volume, sphericity, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose, static coefficient of friction, and thermal transitions. Beans of variety JCR-08-10 had dark (L: 20.96±1.00), trifling red (a: 0.42±0.1) and minute blue (b: -0.69 ± 0.13) in colour. The length, width and thickness of all varieties ranged from 6.52 - 8.44 mm, 3.87 - 5.28 mm and 3.14 - 4.35 mm, respectively. The sphericity, bean volume and bean surface area of these varieties were between 63.02 - 69.9 %, 30.94 - 70.92 mm3, and 51.09 - 87.73 mm2, respectively. The thousand-bean mass, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose of rice-bean varieties were 57.64 - 118.72 g, 820 – 877 kg.m-3, 1138.40 – 1388.79 kg.m-3, 26.47 – 40.57 %, 9.57-21.40º, respectively. The varieties JCR-08-8, JCR-08-12, JCR-08- 15 had comparatively higher bulk density than other varieties. The static coefficients of friction for glass, stainless steel and aluminium were 0.29 - 0.37, 0.38 - 0.45, and 0.35 - 0.55, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms revealed that JCR- 08-8, JCR-08-12 and JCR-50 had highest melting temperature ranging between 121.73 oC and 155.45 oC.
Agriculture in India is gradually tending to be less interesting and lucrative profession due to high risks and less reliability. In order to increase net return from agriculture, proper planning and consideration of prevailing constraints is essential. Bhagwanpur distributary command area-based problem, consisting of maximization of net return with available land, water, labour, energy and other affinity constraints was formulated and solved employing modified Simplex method of linear programming. The area allocated under different crops, land productivity and water productivity for various combinations of canal water and ground water use were computed. When more area was allocated under remunerative crops like maize and potato with 100 % tube well water and canal water use by the crops, maximum net return of `2.31× 108 could be obtained. Maximum land productivity for the command area, was 63826 `.ha-1 when 85 % canal water and 100 % ground water were used by the crops in total area of 3426.9 ha; while maximum water productivity of 25.66 `.m-3 was obtained when 100 % canal water and ground water were used. The results may be useful in suggesting farmers on allocation of their agricultural land under profitable interventions to maximize net return, water productivity and land productivity.
A study was attempted to develop a solar regenerative Bentonite - CaCl2 based solid desiccant material, and examine it's moisture sorption performance and regeneration characteristics. The desiccant was developed from 60 % bentonite, 20 % vermiculite, 10 % CaCl2 and 10 % cement. Regeneration studies on the desiccant were carried out for moisture adsorption at 30 °C and 96 % R.H. for 144 h; and moisture desorption at 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C for 8 h. Regeneration temperature and time significantly affected the moisture sorption and desorption of the solid desiccant, and their combined impact was meaningful (p ≤ 0.05). Maximum adsorption capacity of the desiccant was 35.12 % (d.b.), and was efficiently regenerated by solar energy.
Some rehydration, textural and sensory characteristics of tofu dried at 45°C, 60°C and 75°C were studied. Rehydration ratio and coefficient of rehydration were found to vary from 1.39 to 1.49, and 0.67 to 0.93, respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness were found to decrease from 5077.34 g to 3939.95 g and (-) 4.47 to (-)39.71g.s, while springiness and chewiness increased from 0.14 to 0.22 and 647.60 to 820.77, respectively, with increase in drying temperature. L values increased with temperature from 48.04 to 53.55. Sensory characteristics of tofu dried at 75°C obtained from a consumer panel showed acceptability of the product.
Greenhouse is a well-established technology for crop cultivation or nursery growing under controlled, or partially controlled, condition. The major hindrance in its widespread adoption is construction cost and environment management. A low-cost detachable roof greenhouse was developed for round-the-year cultivation of tomato/capsicum. The temperature under the greenhouse during winter season (November-February) was 1-3 0C higher than at open field condition due to greenhouse effect. The temperature during summer season (March-June) in the greenhouse was between 5-46 0C, and was lower than the temperature (6-49 0C) under open field condition. During rainy season (July-October), the temperature recorded were 9-38 0C and 12-41 0C, respectively, under greenhouse and open field condition. The light intensity and relative humidity in the greenhouse varied between 0.7-53.2 klux and 14-96 %, respectively.