ABSTRACT A study was conducted to develop a plug- and finger-type onion seedling transplanting mechanisms in a soil bin and examine the effects of age of seedling and machine parameters (speed of operation, height of seedling drop, finger material) on plant spacing, planting depth, successful transplanting, furrow closure, filling efficiency and plant damage. Plant spacing ranged from 121.4 mm to 133.5 mm using plug metering mechanism, while it was 167.9 mm to 195.0 mm with finger-type metering mechanism. The percent seedling transplanted and percent furrow closure with plug mechanism varied from 76.67 % to 100 % and 73.33 % to 100 %, respectively; and in finger-type metering mechanism they ranged from 18.33 % to 78.33 % and 15 % to 73.33 %, respectively. Plug filling efficiency ranged from 96.67 % to 32.22 % with plug mechanism, and 95.28 % to 22.5 % with finger metering mechanism. Percent seedling damage with plug mechanism ranged from 0 % to 17.54 %, and was lower than 0 % to 31.05 % caused by finger-type metering mechanism. The performance of plug-type metering mechanism for onion seedling was closer to the recommended practices as compared to finger-type metering mechanism.
ABSTRACT Poor residue handling capability of no-till drills in combine harvested rice and wheat fields during sowing of wheat in rabi and pulses in kharif is a major barrier for their extensive use. The problem aggravates more due to lesser inter-spacing between furrow openers and their arrangements on only two toolbars. A study was conducted to assess the effect of furrow opener arrangements on residue accumulation on a test setup with three toolbars and seven inverted-T type furrow openers. Six patterns of furrow opener arrangements were evaluated in combine harvested wheat field. Furrow openers in V-type arrangement of 2, 2 and 3 on front, middle and rear toolbar, respectively, (Arrangement-B) was the best in terms of residue entanglement and accumulation of 121 g.m-1 length. No residue accumulation was observed when the setup was operated under chopped residue condition with same arrangement. Residue flow percentage was 100% for this arrangement. The result suggested arranging the furrow openers on three toolbars with wider furrow opener spacing to minimize the residue accumulation while drilling pulse crops under no-till residue condition after wheat harvesting.
ABSTRACT India is the second largest producer of tea in the world. Assam contributes 53 % of total plantation area and 54 % of total production of the country. Large quantity of waste is generated from tea processing which has negligible economic value. Industrial tea waste was collected from a nearby tea industry and converted into briquette after mixing with binding material. Briquette’s characteristics prepared from industrial tea waste (ITW) was found good for gasification. The calorific value of ITW was measured as 18.01 MJ.kg-1. Gasification was carried out at air flow rates of 25.32, 31.65, 34.08, and 42.96 Nm3.h-1 at four inlet settings of the blower. The producer gas composition (CO = 18.7 % and H2 = 15.5 %) was highest at 31.65 Nm3.h-1 air flow rate. Maximum combustible gas discharge was 0.78 Nm3.kg-1 at air flow of 31.65 Nm3.h-1 and feed rate of 14.30 kg.h-1. Measured and estimated calorific value of the producer gas was 4.10 and 4.63 MJ.Nm-3, respectively, with 54.55 % gasification efficiency. It was concluded that ITW has good gasification potential, and may be utilised by the tea industry for partial independence from use of conventional sources of energy.
ABSTRACT Chickpea grains were roasted by traditional sand roasting (180, 200 and 220ºC) and microwave roasting (450 W, 600 W and 900 W) for 5, 10 and 15 min. The effects of roasting method and their parameters on physico-mechanical and roasting characteristics were determined. Roasting led to an increase in size, sphericity, angle of repose, porosity and puffing index of chickpea. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in fracture force and coefficient of friction was observed. True density decreased with roasting and the lowest value of 787.87 kg.m-3 was observed on sand roasting at 180°C for 15 min. The highest value of puffing index (179.87 %) and length/width ratio (155.04 %) was observed for sand roasting at 220ºC for 15 min and 5 min, respectively. The force required for rupture of chickpea reduced with roasting, and the lowest value (32.28 N) was observed during sand roasting at 220ºC for 10 min. The optimum roasting condition identified for sand and microwave roasting to obtain higher puffing index, lower hardness and rupture energy was observed to be 220 ºC for 10 min and 600 W for 15 min, respectively.
ABSTRACT Sweet lime is rich in nutrients, but has high waste index. In the present study, efforts were delineated on development of third generation rice-based snacks integrated with pulse powder and sweet lime pomace through extrusion. Optimization of the extrusion process was done by response surface methodology for achieving the maximum possible expansion ratio, water absorption index, water solubility index, crude fibre, antioxidant capacity, protein content, overall acceptability; and simultaneously minimum bulk density, hardness and in range colour change. The developed snack had excellent nutritional, physical and sensory attributes and depicted a scintillating prospect for commercial development. The optimum values of process parameters, using RSM were: 70 % rice proportion (along with 15 % pulse powder and 15 % sweet lime pomace powder) with 12 % feed moisture content, 300 rpm screw speed and 137°C die temperature. The overall desirability was 0.62 for extruded product when optimized by RSM.
ABSTRACT Selected engineering properties as colour parameters, moisture content, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose and angle of internal friction of different exudate gums obtained from selected tree species were determined. Lightness, redness and yellowness values of exudate gums ranged from 22.66 – 49.58, 2.66 – 7.16 and 5.32 – 18.43, respectively. Moisture content, bulk density, true density, porosity and angle of repose of exudate gums ranged from 9.25 – 20.39 %, 592.5 – 792.78 kg.m-3, 1106.67 – 1430 kg.m-3, 36.75 – 49.81 % and 30.00 – 45.000, respectively. Angle of internal friction ranged from 24.520 to 29.050 for wood, 25.300 to 28.260 for glass, 25.020 to 29.280 for steel, 25.120 to 28.990 for galvanized iron, 25.450 to 27.860 for aluminium, 25.160 to 29.930 for mild steel, 26.450 to 28.580 for plywood, 24.970 to 27.990 for fibre, 24.980 to 27.440 for plastic and 20.980 to 27.970 for white board surfaces, respectively. Values of engineering properties determined under the study can be used as references in design of gum handling and processing machineries.
ABSTRACT The Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) encompass a large alluvial track consisting of multi-tier aquifer system. Due to stride developmental activities and intensification of agriculture with higher irrigation water requirement, shallow groundwater regime is getting depleted causing hydrological drought. Spatio-temporal variation of seasonal drought pattern and drought severity in the IGP region was analysed for the period of 2005-2009, using Standardized water level index (SWI) with topo to raster methods of interpolation in geographic information system (GIS). Analysis of hydrological drought indicated that 40-60 % area in the IGP was affected by mild hydrological drought, whereas 2-7 % of the area was affected by extreme hydrological drought because of excessive and indiscriminate groundwater pumping leading to decline in groundwater level. SWI categories were correlated with the irrigation activity for better irrigation planning. Irrigation planning for the IGP was suggested for different SWI drought categories.
ABSTRACT Morphometric analysis of Pingalgarh watershed in Maharashtra state was carried out using remote sensing and GIS techniques for 1977 and 2016. Detailed drainage map was prepared from LISS-IV high resolution satellite image of 20th November 2016 to assess the present situation and from Geo-referenced toposheet on 1:50,000 scale for the year 1977 to bring out the past condition. These maps were used for morphometric analysis and also for runoff estimation. Low drainage density values indicated that the area was underlain by moderately impermeable sub-surface material. Circularity and elongation ratio showed that the watershed had elongated shape. Due to change in land use, the total stream length in the watershed had reduced. The low to moderate value of basin relief indicated gravity of water flow, moderate infiltration and runoff condition of the study area. The length of overland flow indicating the long flow path with moderate ground slope, reflecting the areas associated with moderate runoff and infiltration. Low values of relief are the characteristic features of less resistant rocks of the area. Due to change in land use and cropping pattern over a period of time, the time of concentration was reduced in the later stage resulting in increase in peak runoff rate.