ABSTRACT Draft requirements for prototypes of mouldboard plough, cultivator and offset disc harrow with different widths of cut or number of tools were measured at four levels of depth and four levels of forward speed in three soil compaction levels in a soil bin with sandy clay loam soil at an average soil moisture content of 9.58% (d.b.). Effect of depth was more significant on draft of mouldboard plough and offset disc harrow, whereas number of tynes was the most significant factor for cultivator. Rate of increase of draft with respect to depth was higher as compared to forward speed, cone index and width of cut for all implements tested. Draft values predicted by ASABE model were compared with those obtained from soil bin tests at three compaction levels. Quite often, the measured draft values were found to be about 2.9, 1.7 and 1.65 times more than the ASABE predicted values for mouldboard plough, cultivator and offset disk harrow, respectively. An equation similar to the ASABE model incorporating cone index was developed using stepwise regression analyses to model the draft of tillage implements for the range of soil and operating condition tested. Field tests with commercial models of these implements were conducted to acquire data for draft by developing appropriate instrumentation to validate the developed draft equation. The average absolute variations between the predicted and measured values of draft were within 5.5 % and 11.6% for all the implements tested, and thus validated the developed draft prediction equation.
ABSTRACT A good tractor design requires that important controls are easily accessible to the operator. Tractor operator controls within the workplace should be conveniently and logically located, and the workplace should fit both tall and short operators. The design parameters of the tractor workplace configuration were determined by using anthropometric dimensions of male tractor operators of Gujarat region. The locations of different tractor seat and control locations were calculated considering the biomechanical and anthropometric measurements. Studies on evaluation of the design location of controls resulted in steering column angle of 65⁰ with horizontal, foot pedals distance of 875 mm from SRP and the draft control lever distance of 286 mm from SRP. Compatibility analysis was done with five Indian tractors. It was found that the workplace dimensions of selected tractors varied widely with the design values.
ABSTRACT The effects of process parameters on ohmic heating (electric field strength of 600 V.m-1, 750 V.m-1 and 900 V.m-1), end point temperature (70 ºC, 80 ºC and 90 ºC) and holding time (5 min, 10 min and 15 min) were investigated on oil recovery from mustard seeds using laboratory model ohmic heating system. Primary quality attributes viz. free fatty acids and colour value of oil from ohmically treated mustard seeds was determined using standard methods. The maximum oil recovery (84.90 %) was obtained when the sample was heated at 90 oC using electric field strength of 750 V.m-1 for a holding time of 15 min. The free fatty acid (1.11 % to 1.27 %) in the oil samples was within the acceptable limit (0.5-3.0 %). The L value of oil extracted from ohmic heated mustard seeds ranged from 40.32 to 40.87 as against 40.71 of control sample.
ABSTRACT Most of walnut production is manually hulled in India. Green walnut is processed in dry condition by removing the outer shell. Removing of outer shell of walnut with a knife by hand is difficult at a low production rate of 0.025- 0.030 t.h-1. A motorized walnut dehuller based on the principle of shearing-off the hull of a green walnut by shearing force was developed and evaluated, with peripheral speed and number of heaping days being optimized to make the best quality of hulling process. Results indicated that the effective throughput capacity, hulling efficiency and fully hulled walnut percentage increased with increase in peripheral speed. Similarly, hulling efficiency increased with increase in number of heaping days before hulling, but the fruit shell staining and kernel discoloration took place with increase in the number of heaping days after harvest. At peripheral speed of 6.41 m.s-1 and 4-day heaping period, the hulling capacity of the developed machine was 0.260 t.h-1 with hulling efficiency of 79.55 per cent.
ABSTRACT Potential impacts of climate change on streamflow in the Gomti River basin of India were studied using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The model was calibrated and validated using monthly streamflow data of four gauging stations of the basin. Climate change scenarios were developed using spatially downscaled (0.5×0.5°) MIROC3.2 (HiRes) GCM data for A2, A1b and B1 emission scenarios. The analysis showed that annual rainfall is likely to increase by 10 % to 18 %, 15 % to 24 %, and 19 % to 26 % during the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively. Mean annual stream-flows were projected to increase by 15 % to 38 %, 25 % to 44 % and 40 % to 55 % during the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively. Simulation results also indicated spatial and temporal variability in stream-flow in the basin, indicating the need for location-specific adaptation measure for planning of water use in the basin. The findings of the study could be useful for planning and managing water resources in the Gomti river basin for adaptation to climate change.
ABSTRACT Tractor operated inclined plate bed planter with total width of 2300 mm was used to plant carrot seed. Field trials on sowing of carrot seed were conducted using broadcasting, ridge and mechanical bed planting methods. Field capacity of mechanical method of planting was higher (0.5 ha.h-1) as compared to 0.25 ha.h-1 and 0.02 ha.h-1 with the broadcasting and ridge methods, respectively. Seed rate requirement using machine was 6.9 kg.ha-1 as compared to 18.75 kg.ha-1 with broadcasting. The plant population of mechanical planting was higher (5.25x105 ha-1) as compared to 4.0x105 ha-1 and 4.38x105 ha-1 by ridge and broadcasting methods, respectively. Root weight/yield of crop planted with machine was significantly higher (69.3 t.ha-1) as compared to 51.75 t.ha-1 and 48.38 t.ha-1 obtained by ridge and broadcasting methods, respectively. Total planting cost of mechanical planting was lesser (4578 `.ha-1) as compared to 11218 `.ha-1 and 38828 `.ha-1 with broadcasting and ridge methods, respectively. Total cost saving with carrot planter was 56 % and 87%, respectively, as compared to broadcasting and ridge planting methods. Break even point of carrot planter was 50 ha.yr-1 with payback period of 50 ha use of the planter.