ABSTRACT Self-propelled rice transplanting machines were commercially produced and used in Japan. Countries like Thailand, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan are still carrying out researches for development of mechanical rice transplanter suitable for their countries. Most power-operated transplanters use two-dimensional four-bar linkage mechanism in their planting unit with the transplanting finger an extension of the coupler link. Design of power-operated planting mechanisms involves a process of analytical synthesis to analyse the path of motion and velocity of finger at the point of picking of the seedling and at the point of planting. Link dimensions are modified until a suitable mechanism is obtained. This paper summarizes some of the planting designs for development of rice transplanters.
ABSTRACT A variable rate fertilizer metering mechanism was designed by changing the speed of the feed shaft for use in variable rate fertilizer applicator. A micro-controller unit programmed with a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) motor driver was used to run the feed shaft for varying speeds. Two types of fluted rollers (straight and helical flute) were used with varying number of flutes having same volume for each fluted roller. No significant difference in discharge rate between helical and straight fluted roller was observed with varying number of flutes (6, 8, 10, and 12). However the discharge rate of SSP fertilizer was significantly higher than that for DAP. Also, significant difference was observed in applied torque and power requirement for straight and helical flute.
ABSTRACT Pearl millet based pasta was evaluated for quality changes during 6-month storage in bi-axially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) packaging material of 100 μm thickness and water vapour transmission rate of 7.71 g,m-2.day-1 at ambient condition (32.95 ± 8.75 °C (max), 17.6 ± 12.1 °C (min) and 79 ± 19 % RH). The quality parameters of pasta were determined at intervals of 1 month. Moisture content (MC) of pasta varied from 8.87 % to 11.90 %, water activity 0.51 to 0.66, free fatty acids (FFA) 0.48 % to 0.82 %, peroxide value (PV) 2.10 to 5.79 meq.kg-1 of oil, fat acidity 20.54 mg.100 g-1 to 37.77 mg.100 g-1. Cooking loss (6.22 % to 7.66 %) and variation in textural properties such as hardness (10.75-11.68 N), cohesiveness (0.60-0.64), springiness (1.17-1.26 mm), gumminess (6.01-6.45 N), chewiness (6.15-6.45 N.mm) of pasta were found to be non-significant during storage period. Moisture content, water activity, FFA, PV, fat acidity were found to be positively related to storage period. Microbial counts (total plate count, yeast, mould, E. Coli, Salmonella, Shigella) were not detected during the entire storage period. With overall acceptability value of 7.67 out of 9, the sensory evaluation revealed very good acceptability of the product even after 6 months of storage. Thus, the overall quality, safety, and acceptability of the product remained acceptable throughout the 6-month storage period.
ABSTRACT The effect of combined low pressure superheated steam drying (LPSSD) followed by vacuum drying (VD) on quality of onion slices at different temperature (60-80 oC~10 kPa) was determined. In the first stage, the moisture content of onion slices was reduced to 50 % (w.b.) from 88-90 % (w.b.) using LPSSD; and then it was further reduced up to 7-8 % (w.b.) by VD. It was found that among the various drying temperatures studied, retention of colour, rehydration ratio, thio-sulphinate content and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated onion was better at 60 oC, followed by 70 oC, whereas total phenol contents were higher at 80 oC. The results of control dried sample and sample dried at 60 oC had significant differences in time taken for drying, thio-sulfinate content, total phenol content and antioxidant capacity, whereas insignificant effects of drying temperature was observed on rehydration and water activity of dried onion slices.
ABSTRACT Cleaning of sapota is an important unit operation after harvesting. Harvested fruits are presently cleaned by manually rubbing with cloth. A manually operated sapota cleaner was designed and developed to reduce human drudgery. The cleaner was tested at 60, 65 and 70 rpm, and its batch capacity varied from 15 to 45 kg. The drum with jute cloth inner lining had cleaning efficiency of 99.95 % at 70 rpm rotational speed and 20 kg sapota batch load. At drum speed of 60 rpm and 20 or 30 kg of sapota load, no damage of fruit was observed. The cleaner gave best performance at 70 rpm drum speed, 20 kg feed /batch, giving 99.95 % cleaning efficiency and 2.04 % fruit damage. The cost of the cleaner was ` 7000, with cost saving of ` 0.30/kg sapota as compared to traditional cleaning method.
ABSTRACT Micro-watershed prioritization has gained importance in watershed management. Morphometric analysis of the Takarla-Ballowal watershed in Shivalik foot-hills of Punjab was carried out using remote sensing and GIS techniques. ASTER data was used for preparing Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The total area of the watershed (2401.82 ha) was divided into 9 micro-watersheds (MWS-1 to MWS-9) with areas ranging from 88.03 ha to 376.72 ha. Drainage density of the micro-watersheds varied from 11.41 km.km-2 (MWS-1) to 3.97 km.km-2 (MWS-9), elongation ratio from 0.46 (MWS-8) to 0.80 (MWS-1 and MWS-3), circularity ratio from 0.68 (MWS-1) to 0.34 (MWS-7 and MWS-8), and relief ratio (Rh) from 0.013(MWS-9) to 0.070 (MWS-3). The length of overland flow varied from 125.94 m (MWS-9) to 43.82 m (MWS-1). Compound morphometric parameter values of the micro-watersheds were determined based on each morphometric parameter value, and the micro-watersheds ranked. The micro-watershed MWS-6 with compound parameter value of 5.7 had lowest priority, while MWS-1 had highest priority with compound parameter value of 4.3, suggesting that MWS-1 was subjected to maximum soil erosion and susceptible to natural hazards. Hence, the micro-watershed MWS-1 should be given top priority for planning and executing conservation treatments.
ABSTRACT Evaporation and evapotranspiration are important parameters for various agricultural activities, which may be estimated using a pan coefficient value obtained from several models. It is a function of wind speed, temperature, relative humidity and fetch length. For dry sub-humid climate of Varanasi, Snyder model was found to be best for estimating the pan coefficient with an average value of 0.79, which closely agreed with pan coefficient value estimated by the standard FAO-56 model. The maximum and minimum average daily pan evaporation for the region was 8.8 mm.day-1 and 2.5 mm.day-1, respectively, in the month of May and December. The reference evapotranspiration estimated using pan coefficient obtained from Snyder method showed lowest MAE of 0.24, RMSE of 0.30, agreement Index of 0.99, percentage error of estimate of 6.51 % and efficiency of 96 per cent. The Mann-Kendall’s non-parametric test used for identifying trend showed an increasing trend for pan coefficient data series, and a decreasing trend for pan evaporation data series at 5 % significance level. Tempoal variation in pan coefficient may be computed for Varanasi meteorological station to estimate reference evapotranspiration.