ABSTRACT A study was conducted to compare two water-saving practices, deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root zone drying (PRD), and to examine how they affect water use, growth and yield of greenhouse grown capsicum compared to control irrigation (CI). The effect of PRD on the growth of capsicum plant was significant. The results showed that capsicum fruit yield was highest for control (full irrigation), followed by the deficit irrigation treatment (DI-75 %) and then 1 PRD treatment. The analysis suggested that the treatment 1 PRD outperformed 2 PRD and DI-50 in terms of fruit yield. The yield loss in PRD treatment was only 11.1 % compared to control, whereas amount of water applied was 50 % less than through control irrigation. The highest water use efficiency was achieved for treatment of 1 PRD with 63 % improvement in irrigation efficiency over control. The treatment 1 PRD used 20.60 litres of water to produce 1 kg capsicum as against 33.61 litres under control treatment.
ABSTRACT The study investigated the impact of transplanting date and irrigation scheduling on water balance, water productivity, and soil moisture movement in puddled transplanted rice (PTR). Rice transplanted on June 20th (T2) contributed to lesser water losses (ET=75.0 mm and drainage=48.5 mm) than that of June 5th transplanted rice (T1), and significantly saved 164 mm of irrigation water. Treatment T2 resulted in higher irrigation water productivity (WPI=0.19 g.kg-1) and total water productivity (WPI+R=0.08 g.kg-1) than that of treatment T1. In terms of method of irrigation, the irrigation scheduling based on tensiometer (I2-SWS of 16 kPa) contributed to 104.5 mm lesser drainage loss and saved 120 mm irrigation water than that of irrigation scheduling based on intermittent 2-day drainage (I1). Irrigation method I2 contributed to yield higher water productivities (WPI=0.058 g.kg-1 and WPI+R=0.003 g.kg-1) than that of irrigation method I1. The soil moisture movement study was conducted by using hydrus-2D model. The model simulations were compared with the field data. An acceptable agreement between model simulations and field data was achieved.
ABSTRACT An improved solar cooker for animal feed was fabricated using locally available materials as bricks, cement, sand and pearl millet hull. The commercial materials used for its fabrication were glass covers, 24 SWG galvanised steel, wood, aluminum sheet, and cooking utensils. Length to width ratio of the cooker was designed as 3:1 for maximum radiation exposure on the glass window at any time in a day. It helped in eliminating the need for azimuthal tracking of the cooker, which is essential for a simple hot box solar cooker. The solar cooker was capable of boiling 10 kg animal feed per day, sufficient for four cattle heads, with efficiency of 26.4 per cent. The thermal performance of the animal feed solar cooker through stagnation and water boiling tests performed during April, 2016 indicated the First Figure of Merit (F1), Second Figure of Merit (F2) and standardized cooking power (Ps) to be 0.089 m2.°C.W-1, 0.288 J.W-1.°C-1 and 27.40 W, respectively. It indicates that the developed cooker falls under category “B” of BIS standard, but sufficient for cooking of animal feed once a day.
ABSTRACT The physical properties of multiplier onion (CO-4) were studied as a function of moisture content in the range of 80.87 % to 88.84 % (w.b.). The geometrical, physical and frictional properties, namely size, true density, bulk density and coefficient of friction increased with increase in moisture content. The average equatorial diameter, polar diameter and thickness of onion ranged from 30.8 to 34.0 mm, 24.2 to 25.9 mm, 18.6 to 21.0 mm, respectively at a moisture range of 80.87 % to 88.84 % (w.b.). The true density ranged from 887.0 to 933.0 kg.m-3, whereas the bulk density of onion bulbs varied from 397.54 to 462.63 kg.m-3 at the above moisture range. The highest friction was offered by rubber, followed by cardboard, mild steel, galvanised iron and stainless steel. The porosity of onion decreased from 55.13 % to 50.39 % with increase in moisture content. Linear equations comprising the thickness, polar and equatorial diameter predicted the mass of onion bulbs with highest R2 value of 0.998.
ABSTRACT An animal drawn garlic digger, especially for small and marginal farms, was developed. Six types of digger blades with varied width and nose angles were evaluated for digging of garlic plants. The digger was operated at 16 % (d.b.) soil moisture content and cone index of 1350 kpa within soil profile 0-150 mm. The draft requirement of 650 mm wide blades was 30% higher than the pulling capacity of selected pair of bullocks. Blades of 550 mm of radius of curvature and 700 mm wide curved type with radius of curvature 700 mm had 86% efficiency, and required less draft with bullock fatigue score of 12. The fatigue score of blade of same width with 170° and 150° nose angle were 18 and 16, respectively. Field capacity of the digger was found to be 0.12 ha.h-1, and almost 25 times higher than that of manual digging. The average garlic damage was in the range of 3.62–5.40% for selected blades. The animal drawn garlic digger saved 75% cost and 44.8% energy as compared to the traditional method of manual digging.
ABSTRACT Studies were conducted on an experimental two-row self-propelled semi-automatic vegetable transplanter through control plot conditions to determine the optimum press wheel parameters for achieving maximum plant stand of brinjal crop. Brinjal seedling length of 150-300 mm was transplanted at forward speed of 0.8-1.0 km.h-1. Plant stand increased and soil cone index decreased with increase in tilt angle from 5° to 15°, and also with increase in width of the press wheel from 55 mm to 75 mm for different tilt angles, and press wheel diameters of 55, 65 and 75 mm. It was also found that larger the diameter of press wheel, better was the plant stand in a row. Best performance of the press wheel was obtained at dimensions of 15º tilt angle, 300 mm diameter and 75 mm width.