ABSTRACT Pusa Basmati 1121 (PB1121) rice (longest milled grain in the world), raw and parboiled, was dehusked and milled at 6 different degrees of milling (DOM) varied from 5-10 per cent. Head rice yield decreased up to 10% with increased DOM in both raw and parboiled rice. However, parboiling increased the yield of marketable rice by 18.68 per cent. DOM significantly (α=0.05) affected cooking and textural qualities of raw and parboiled rice. Mineral composition of raw and parboiled rice indicated that P, K, Mg and S constituted the major portion, about 97% of the mineral composition of PB1121 rice. DOM adversely affected the mineral content of rice, but this effect was less severe in parboiled rice. Principal component analysis (PCA) performed for selected quality characteristics of PB1121 rice indicated that optimum DOM (%) for raw and parboiled PB1121 rice would be 7% and 8%, respectively.
The effect of radio-frequency (RF) heating on quality parameters of powdered black pepper spice was investigated. Black pepper powder was treated with RF energy to achieve 70o C average temperature maintained for 15 minutes. There was no significant difference in colour, water activity and piperine content of RF-treated and untreated black pepper powder. The essential oil extracted from the treated and untreated black pepper powder was 0.52 g and 0.55 g, respectively. Total phenolic contents of black pepper essential oil were 0.29±0.02 mg GAE. g-1 oil for untreated sample and 0.30±0.02 for RF-treated sample. The results suggested that RF heating can be effectively used for black pepper powder without significant changes in its physical and biochemical parameters.
Plum tomatoes were dried under hot air convection for producing powder. Different physical treatments were performed to achieve faster drying and milling. Initial moisture of tomato was 93.97 % with TSS of 4.6 %, which was dried to around 5 % moisture. Among the treatments, longitudinally cut in 16 pieces and cross-section slice segments took less time to dry and gave higher (6.4 %) drying yield. The effectiveness of treatments on drying characteristics and quality of tomato powder were examined. Mathematical models were employed by non-linear regression analysis to appropriately describe the drying behaviours. The physico-chemical quality characteristics of fresh and powder tomato were evaluated in terms of size and shape, peel pulp seed ratio, TSS, ascorbic acid, acidity, lycopene and solubility. The overall sensory perception revealed that all treatment samples of tomato powder reconstituted well in the form of soup-mix and achieved nearly equal scores on different quality attributes.
The soaking stage of parboiling is a critical unit operation that demands a cautious time-temperature relationship, which has direct implications on post-parboiling grain quality. This study aimed to two-dimensional computationally model moisture intake characteristics of paddy (var. ADT-39) when soaked at three different temperatures (60, 56 and 70 ºC). Fickian diffusion was considered and hydration rates were found to be significantly temperature dependent, and were higher during the first 1 h soaking period, and the first 300 s period in specific, corresponding to moisture diffusion across the husk layer. Predicted values were validated against experimental results and were found to be in the acceptable range. This approach is simple, quick and can be extended as a tool to better understand the soaking process of food grains.
Groundwater play a vital role in stabilizing Indian agriculture, but its indiscriminate uses is resulting in fast depletion and degradation of this key natural resource. Sustainable groundwater resource management is, therefore, a priority issue before the country.Enhancing artificial groundwater recharge by adopting suitable technological interventions can be an option. Two cavity-type recharge structures with radial-1 filter were designed-1 and installed with village ponds at Kutba and Nirmana villages, and their impact on groundwater was assessed. Recharge rates varied from 382 m3.day-1 to 906 m3.day-1 during three test cycles, each of 8 days duration. As estimated, 27,304 m3 surplus water was recharged through the recharge well at Kutba site during December 2017 to March 2018. Similarly, 0.2 m water table rise was recorded beneath and around the structure at Nirmana during monsoon 2018. Results of field investigations revealed that cavity-type recharge structure in combination with a pond and radial filter can be a good option for recharging surplus canal and rainwater for augmentation of water resources in groundwater depleting areas.
Sensor-based automated irrigation scheduling reduces the water losses, and applies precise quantities of water as per the crop water requirements, thereby improving the water use efficiency of irrigation systems. An automatic irrigation system (AIS) comprising of controller (raspberry pi), dual probe conductance-based soil moisture sensors and liquid crystal display it should read as liquid crystal display (LCD) LCD screen was developed to automate sprinkler irrigation system. The controller of the system was programmed using python programming language to control the solenoid valve and the motor on the basis of field-sensed soil moisture data. Field capacity and 50 % depletion of available soil moisture content were set as the upper and lower limits of soil moisture for switching the motor to ‘OFF’ or ‘ON’ condition, respectively. The developed system was compared with manual sprinkler irrigation for cabbage as indicator crop. Over the crop growing season, the moisture content under AIS was in the range of 0-10 % of soil moisture, indicating better accuracy of the AIS in sensing the water content in the crop root zone. The total cost of the AIS for 1 ha area was ₹ 16,058/-. The benefit-cost ratio of AIS was higher (2.59) as against manual irrigation (2.16), for cabbage.
An on-farm experiment was conducted on farmers’ field in two villages of Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh to evaluate the effectiveness of mulched and non-mulched furrow irrigated raised bed(FIRB) system over farmers’ practice of check basin irrigation for brinjal crop. The system performance was assessed in terms of crop physiological parameters, water saving, yield, water productivity and cost of cultivation. Mulch significantly affected the physiological parameters of crop like plant height, number of branches, girth, root depth, leaf area and fruit weight. Results revealed that the water savings under furrow irrigated raised bed system without mulch (T2) and with mulch (T3) was 167.7 mm (31.2 %) and 237.0 mm (44.1 %), respectively, as compared to farmers’ practice (T1). Significantly higher brinjal yield (21.29 t.ha-1) was observed in T3, which was 26.7 % higher over T1. Higher yield and comparatively lesser application of irrigation water resulted in significantly high water productivity (88.49 kg.ha-mm-1) in T3 as compared to T1 (31.34 kg.ha-mm-1). The average benefit-cost ratio (BCR) for the treatments T1, T2, and T3 were 2.21, 2.58 and 2.62, respectively. Furrow irrigated raised bed cultivation of brinjal with black plastic mulch is recommended to the farmers of central Uttar Pradesh to achieve twin objectives of improved crop yields and increased water productivity.