Human power can be better utilised in rotary mode either by cranking or by pedalling. In occupational workload, pedalling is preferred over cranking as the former results less physiological cost. The present study aimed to determine the most economical pedalling rates at various power outputs as well as to arrive at the optimum power output and pedalling rate combination. Ten male subjects participated as replications with two independent parameters viz. power output (4 levels) and pedalling rate (5 levels). Three physiological parameters viz HR, OCR and ∆HR were studied. It was observed that all physiological parameters initially decreased, and then increased following a curvilinear relationship with respect to pedalling rate for all power outputs. The limiting power output for male agricultural workers was about 60 W in pedalling mode with pedalling rate 60 rpm. The HR, ∆HR and OCR at this power–pedalling rate combination were 116 beats.min-1, 33 beat.min-1 and 0.8 l.min-1, respectively.
Pyrolysis is a better option for effective utilisation of surplus biomass and its utilization to liquid fuels. In this study, the technique of fast pyrolysis was adopted for the production of bio-crude from selected biomaterials viz. rice husk, coir pith, saw dust, cotton stalk, red gram stalk, groundnut shell and maize cob. Bio-crude production was done in a lab-scale fixed-bed pyrolytic system at six different temperatures (350°C, 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, 550°C and 600°C). Bio-crude yield was obtained in the range of 28 % to 52 %, and groundnut shell pyrolyzed at 550°C gave maximum percentage of bio-crude. The viscosity, pH, density, specific gravity, calorific value, flash point and fire point of bio-crudes were evaluated using standard methods.
1Scientist, ICAR- Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Abohar, Punjab; 2,Head, 4Ex- Head, Division of Agricultural Engineering; 3Senior Scientist, Division of Food Science and Post-harvest Technology, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi; 5Scientist, Centre for Agricultural Bioinformatics, ICAR-IASRI, New Delhi. Corresponding author email address: email@example.com
Drying kinetics of fruit has importance in estimating optimum nutritional retainability, preservation requisites and process economy while processing into useful products. Drying kinetics of pulp of local variety of Indian blackberry was studied in a cabinet dryer. The drying experiment was conducted at 50 ºC, 60 ºC and 70 ºC, and moisture losses were recorded at 30-min intervals. Drying took place in two falling rate periods. Shift of first to second falling rate period was found to be irrespective of temperature, and started from 1.08 g water.g−1 dry matter. The drying data of Indian blackberry pulp was fitted into five commonly used Newton, Page, Peleg, Henderson and Pabis, and Logarithmic thin layer drying models. The logarithmic model adequately described the drying of Indian blackberry pulp. The activation energy values in first and second falling rate periods were 42.20 kJ.mol−1 and 61.62 kJ.mol−1, respectively.
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on drying kinetics of onion, carrot and tomato seed. The seeds were dried at drying temperatures of 30oC, 35oC and 40oC in a laboratory hot-air oven dryer. Drying rate was faster at higher temperature (40oC) than at lower temperatures. Drying of the seeds occurred in falling rate periods of drying. Drying data were fitted into Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson-Pabis, Logarithmic, two-term exponential, and Wang and Singh models. Based on highest R2 and lowest χ2, RMSE and mean error values, Page model (R2>0.9) was found to be the best fit for drying of all selected seeds at the selected temperatures. However, two-term exponential model was the best fit for onion seed at 35oC and carrot seed at 30oC, and was comparable with Page model in the selected temperature range. Effective moisture diffusivity of onion, carrot and tomato seed ranged between 1.59 x 10-10 m2.s-1 and 3.18 x 10-10 m2.s-1, 3.55 x 10-10 m2.s-1 and 7.10 x 10-11 m2.s-1, 2.65 x 10-10 m2.s-1 and 5.31 x 10-11 m2.s-1, respectively, at above drying temperatures. Activation energies of onion, carrot, and tomato seed were 56.85 kJ.mol-1, 60.69 kJ.mol-1, and 61.44 kJ.mol-1, respectively.
A forced convection greenhouse dryer was developed and used for drying of freshly harvested paddy. The solar greenhouse dryer of size 4.47 × 2.13 m with 2.59 m central height was constructed and covered with 6 mm polycarbonates sheet. Photovoltaic power driven direct current fans were used to provide forced ventilation. Freshly harvested paddy was dried at 50, 100 and 150 mm bed thickness in the hybrid greenhouse dryer and open sun drying during kharif and rabi seasons of 2016. The kharif harvested paddy was dried from 25.3 % to 12.0 % (w.b.) moisture content at 100 mm bed thickness within 21 h, 28 h of drying in the hybrid greenhouse dryer and open sun drying, respectively. Highest drying rates were 1.54 kg.h-1 and 1.35 kg.h-1 in greenhouse dryer and open sun drying, respectively. During rabi season, paddy was dried from 22.8 % to 12.0 % (w.b.) moisture content within 19 h and 25 h with highest drying rates of 1.65 kg.h-1 and 0.97 kg.h-1, respectively, in the hybrid greenhouse dryer and open sun drying. Thermal efficiency of the greenhouse dryer was 28.15 % and 22.15 %, and pickup efficiency was 15.49 % and 14.88 % during kharif and rabi seasons, respectively.
In the context of intensive water consumption patterns emanating from urbanization and accelerated economic growth, water footprint (WF) has been recognized as comprehensive measure to promote efficient, equitable and sustainable use of water resources. In the present study, the WF of a river basin was assessed and blue, green and grey water footprints of major water-consuming sectors of agriculture, domestic and industry within the Betwa river basin were quantified. Sustainability of the blue and grey WFs were analysed to identify temporal hotspots wherein water consumption and pollution infringed upon environment flow requirements. Total annual WF of the Betwa river basin was estimated as 9186 Mm3. Agricultural sector was the largest water consumer accounting for 96.4 % of the total WF, followed by the industrial and domestic sectors (2.2 %). The WF of rainfed and irrigated agriculture was 3868 and 4986 Mm3, respectively. The comparable proportions of blue (45.5 %) and green (43.6 %) WFs in total WF highlighted equal dependence on rainfall, surface water and groundwater resources. The study demonstrated that consumption-based approach of WF provided more realistic estimates of the water uses at river basin scale. Higher values of sustainability indicators like Blue Water Scarcity Index (>400 during December, January and February) and Water Pollution Index (>135 during January and February) indicated that the pattern of human consumption of blue water and resultant pollution was encroaching into environmental flows within the Betwa river basin.
The present study was conducted to simulate runoff in the watershed of Dal (188.72 km2) located in the temperate region of Kashmir using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The study watershed is characterized by significant climatic contrast, abrupt topography, and soil fragility, thereby resulting in flash floods and water erosion. Such situation requires interventions to preserve soil and water resources, and a decision tool for integrated watershed management. The SWAT was calibrated for the year 2010, and validated for the year 2011, based on a comparison of simulated and observed monthly runoff at the watershed outlet. The model performance was evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (ENS), relative root means square error (RRMSE) and percent bias (PBIAS). During the calibration period, R2, ENS, RRMSE and PBIAS were 0.98, 0.87, 1.3 and (-) 26, respectively. During the validation period, the values of R2, ENS, RRMSE and PBIAS were 0.97, 0.84. 1.1 and (-) 26.0, respectively. The modelled values showed reasonably good agreement with the observed values of runoff, both during calibration and validation periods. The runoff in the watershed was quantified under the prevailing land use conditions. The study demonstrated a satisfactory application of the SWAT model for quantification of hydrological processes in a watershed under data scarce condition.
Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (EAAE) method is among the emerging technologies and eco-friendly process for oil extraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil extraction methods and packaging material on shelf life of maize germ oil. Maize germ oil extraction was done by EAAE and solvent extraction method. HDPE and glass bottles were used as packaging materials. Quality characteristics evaluated were acid number, pH value, total phenolics content, colour change, unsaponifiable matter, saponification value, peroxide value and density at 15-day intervals for 90 days of storage period. The quality characteristics of oil changed with the passage of storage periods, and maximum change upto 190 % increase in peroxide value occurred when oil was solvent extracted and stored in HDPE bottle. The quality parameters of EAAE extracted oil were superior to solvent extracted oil. During storage acid number, pH, total phenolics, unsaponifiable matter and peroxide value of oil were significantly affected (P< 0.05) by packaging material, storage period and method of oil extraction.
Soy protein isolate (SPI) were obtained through ultrafiltration using 10 kDa hollow fibre cartridge, 117.21 kPa trans-membrane pressure and 3.5 volume concentration ratio. SPI prepared by ultrafiltration possessed highest protein content (88±0.3 %) and 91.09±0.84 % nitrogen solubility index (NSI) as compared to 84±0.5 % protein content and 19.29±0.74 % NSI for acid precipitated and 85±0.5 % protein content for commercially available SPI. Ultra filtered SPI also possessed highest value of emulsion stability (ES) of 51.96±1.42 %, whereas commercially available SPI exhibited the least value of 48.38±0.015 per cent. Highest value of oil absorption capacity (OAC) was 2.15±0.04 g.g-1 of protein for ultra-filtered, followed by 1.94±0.01 g.g-1 of protein for commercially available, and 1.73±0.04g.g-1 of protein for acid precipitated SPI. The hydrophilic lipophilic index (HLI) values for both ultra-filtrated and commercial SPIs were more than 2, indicating hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of proteins. However, water absorption capacity (WAC) and emulsion capacity were less for ultra-filtered sample as compared to commercially available counterpart. Commercially available SPI had highest value of 6.84±0.08 ml.g-1 of protein, whereas it was least at 1.67±0.016 ml.g-1 of protein for acid precipitated SPI
Rice milling process refers to the removal of husk and bran layers from the paddy grain. Proper machine settings in relation to physical and engineering properties of paddy are necessary for efficient milling operations. The present research work was aimed at incorporating modifications in a rice rubber roll sheller of modern rice mill for better control on its operation. A microcontroller-based electronic device was developed to quantify the clearance between the rubber rolls and feed opening of the rubber roll sheller. The values were displayed on seven-segment display units. A mechanical system to suit automation was also developed to automatically control the feed rate of feed hopper of the rubber roll sheller. The device was designed to read from 0 - 72 mm feed opening gap with least count of 0.075 mm, and rolls clearance from 0 mm to 21 mm with least count of 0.01 mm.
Arsenic is a toxic element present in groundwater causing severe health issues, which require proper treatment before using groundwater for drinking purpose. A study was conducted to remove arsenic trioxide [As (III)] from groundwater using iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS). Batch study was conducted as a function of contact time (30 and 120 min), flow rate (1, 2, 4 and 7 l.h-1), thickness of filter media (50, 75 and 100 mm) for initial arsenic concentration (0.10 and 0.25 mg.l-1). Surface characteristics study of IOCS was done using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infra-red, energy dispersive X-Ray and X-Ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of iron oxide on the surface of coated sand, Fourier transformation infra-red analysis showed the chemical bonding of iron at 525 cm-1 and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis showed 20.76 % of iron on coated sand. During study, maximum As(III) removal was 100 % for initial concentration of 0.25 mg.l-1 and 0.10 mg.l-1, respectively, for contact time of 120 min at flow rate of 1 l.h-1 for 100 mm thickness of filter material. Results of the batch study suggested that IOCS can be effectively used to achieve low level of arsenic in drinking water.
Knowledge of geomorphologic characteristics is necessary for management of land and water resources in a watershed. These characteristics for Patiala-Ki-Rao watershed, located in Shivalik foot-hills of Punjab, were assessed using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS). The form factor (0.27), circulatory ratio (0.53) and elongation ratio (0.59) indicated an elongated shape of the watershed, which might result in low-peaked hydrograph. Drainage characteristics of the watershed, namely drainage density (1.58 km.km-2), drainage texture (6.4 number.km-1), mean bifurcation ratio (2.4) and stream frequency (4.36 number.km-2) indicated quick disposal and low retention of runoff. Slope was less than 10 % in 21.04 km2 (41 % of watershed area), and 63.57 % and 16.39 % areas of the watershed were categorized as forest and agricultural lands, respectively. Furthermore, suitable runoff potential zones were identified by integrating thematic layers of slope, soil texture and land-use using GIS and multi-criteria decision making techniques. The high, moderate and low runoff potential zones covered 13.74 km2 (26.73 %), 21.87 km2 (42.55 %), and 15.79 km2 (30.72 %) areas, respectively. The moderate to high runoff potential zones were mostly situated towards the upstream portion, whereas runoff potential was less in the downstream portion. Therefore, water harvesting and conservation treatment planning in the watershed is necessary for sustainable livelihood of the inhabitants.
A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of various land management practices on runoff, soil loss and infiltration under simulated rainfall conditions. A prototype rainfall simulator was designed and tested in the laboratory to simulate rainfall at 100 mm.h-1 intensity over different land management practices. The effect of five land management practices on runoff, infiltration and soil loss were evaluated for a set of rainfall intensity (100 mm.h-1), rainfall duration (15 min) and raindrop size/ pore size of the nozzle (3.5 mm). The considered management practices were intense tillage land cover, zero or no-tillage land cover, minimum tillage land cover, perennial grass system and urban environment. Perennial grasses were found to be the best management practices to minimize the surface runoff and soil loss with increase in infiltration rate. Experimental results showed that perennial vegetation produced minimum runoff (0.2 l), very small soil loss (4.99 kg.ha-1) and maximum infiltration rate (117.67 mm.h-1), whereas urban environment (concrete surface) produced maximum runoff (3.7 l), minimum infiltration rate (0.1 mm.h-1) and minimum sediment loss (0.08 kg.ha-1).