Asthma plant (Euphorbia hirta L.) is a small annual documented weed contains many phytochemicals that have disease preventing properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different drying methods viz., solar tunnel drying, tray drying, dehumidified air drying and shade drying on drying kinetics and nutritional composition of asthma plant. Dehumidified drying took least time (10.5 h) compared to other drying methods and the drying took place only in the falling rate. The logarithmic model was best fitted for the samples dried under dehumidified air dryer with the highest R2 value of 0.9989 and least RMSE value of 0.0096. Better retention of nutrients like protein, carbohydrates, crude fiber, crude fat and total ash in de-humidified air drying compared to other drying methods. The drying method doesn’t have significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of asthma plant viz., colour, pH, water activity and ascorbic acid content.
Adoption of zero-till technology in wheat was found to be governed by man, machine and input parameters. Attitude of farmers and awareness were found to be most prominent one with 100% scoring. Age of farmers and benefits in cultivation were vital in machine adoption. A total of 75% farmers below 40 years age had used machine and earned more than Rs. 8000/- per acre. Further, 71 % farmers, having above 5.0 acres land had better adoption of the machine. The machine users (82%) were mostly from Rice-Wheat cropping system and 89% of them had sown wheat timely. The percentage of farmers who had used new seeds and granular fertilizers in machine was 79 and 93, respectively. Only 18% and 11% farmers had knowledge of machine calibration for seed and fertilizer, respectively. Poor knowledge of majority of farmers (32%) for depth control in field was general problem. Ultimately, the man, machine and input parameters were found to have role in enhancing wheat productivity through machine. A total of 54% of farmers had realized more than 10% gain in yield by machine over broadcasting method. The farmers who had used machine with fluted roller metering device were 68%. Only 46.43% had maintained machine properly before its use.
In this study, the PLA (v) andPLA+maize, PLA+rice, PLA+potato starch based biodegradable films along with reagents BPO (benzyl peroxide) and GMA (Glycidylmethacrylate) were developed using commercial extrusion blown molding method. The haze %, tensile strength, OTR, WVTR parameters of the developed films varied from 16.38–87.75%, 56.49-29.25 MPa, 318.25-176.85 cc/m2/day and 175-111.14 gm/m2/day respectively. The addition of rice, maize, potato starch decreased Tg from 65.26 to 60.46, 59.71 and 60.93 ºC; Tm from 146.81 to 143.01-150.16, 143.25-150.56 and 144.37-150.56 ºC with a slight increase in Tc from 106.45 to 107.23, 107.70 and 110.14 ºC respectively. The suitability of capsicum in modified atmospheric packaging was studied using the developed biodegradable films. Capsicum was stored under modified atmosphere packaging in the developed films namely, virgin PLA, PLA-rice (10%), PLA-potato (10%), PLA-maize(20%) of size 28×16 cm2 having packaging area for the transmission of gas of 0.0896 m2 with a fill weight of 0.35 kg. Polymeric film made up of LDPEof 60 μm was used for comparison. The MA packages maintained ≤7% PLW and higher firmness of samples as compared to the unpackaged capsicum. MA packages preserved the quality of capsicum up to 12 and 24 days at 25 ºC and 8 ºC, respectively as compared to unpackaged capsicum having shelf life of 4 and 9 days at 25 ºC and 8 ºC, respectively.
Deficit irrigation strategies need to be devised to save irrigation water and optimize yield while maintaining fruit quality. The present study was undertaken to assess fruit quality of tomato (cv. GS-600) under different irrigation treatments in greenhouse environment. Different irrigation treatments were namely (1) Full irrigation, where the required amount of irrigation water estimated from pan evaporation data was applied to all sides of the plant root zone through drip irrigation; (2) RDI30, (3) RDI50, (4) PRD30 and (5) PRD50, where 30% and 50% less amount of water was applied compared to full irrigation. In RDI, water was applied to all sides of the root zone but in case of PRD, left and right side of root zone were irrigated alternately during every irrigation. Significantly higher fruit diameter (6.45- 8.9 cm) in PRD30 irrigation treatment was observed compared to other deficit irrigation treatments though it was at par with full irrigation treatment (7-9 cm). Among the deficit irrigation treatments, total soluble solids (TSS) (6.7 °Brix) and titratable acidity (0.44%) were higher in the PRD30, whereas full irrigation led to significantly lower TSS (4.5 °Brix) and titratable acidity (0.35%), respectively. Compared to full irrigation treatment, partial root zone drying with 30% deficit irrigation can enhance fruit quality while saving water.
At present there are different models of brush cutters available in the market. The safety and efficiency aspects of brush cutters are not being studied for women operators and needs to be evaluated. Therefore, a study was undertaken to ergonomically evaluate the commercially available two stroke and four stroke SI engine operated models of brush cutters with different cutting mechanism. Five female subjects were selected, those having anthropometric dimensions conforming to statistical requirements based on the anthropometric survey. The physiological parameters of operators were recorded during the experiments. There was significant difference in heart rate and energy expenditure rate in the operation of different models of brush cutters. Heart rate and energy expenditure were lowest for four stroke SI engine operated model brush cutter. A significant increase in heart rate was noticed while operating different cutter heads in the order of nylon wire, two blade cutter head and three blade cutter head for both models. The heart rate was maximum with a value of 165 beats min-1 while operating two stroke model with three blade cutter attachment. The overall discomfort rating varied from 5.8 to 8.5 on 0 - 10 discomfort scale and was in the range of “Moderate discomfort “to “ Uncomfortable “. The body part discomfort score value was maximum in the operation of two stroke model with three blade attachment, where as it was minimum in the operation of four stroke mo
This paper presents the design, development and performance evaluation of high insulation box type solar cooker. The solar cooker is capable of boiling food for five persons per day. Stagnation test and the water boiling test of the solar cooker were performed during April, 2017. The resulting values of first figure of merit (F1), second figure of merit (F2) and standardized cooking power (Ps) was 0.1200C, 0.424 and 45 W, respectively, which categorized the cooker as class A. This high insulation solar cooker was found to have high values of F1 and F2 (F1>0.12 and F2>0.40) during different seasons of the year. The overall efficiency of the high insulation box type solar cooker was 26.5%. The cooker is estimated to save 1293.8 MJ of energy per year. The cost of the cooker is INR 4500.00. The payback period of the solar cooker as compared to firewood, electricity, coal, LPG and kerosene based cooking was estimated to be 1.49, 1.94, 2.42, 3.12 and 6.99 years, respectively. The high insulation box type solar cooker can reduce about 815.30 kg of CO2 emission on annual basis.
A commercial scale multi fruit grader suitable for grading different types of spherical shaped fruit was designed and developed. The fruit grader consisted of a grading unit, horizontal belt conveyor and feeding unit. The grader has provision to separate fruits into five grades by adjusting flap spacing between 30 and 145 mm. The grader is operated by a 0.74 kW single phase motor. This grader was installed in a farm and evaluated for grading citrus, apple, sweet lemon and orange fruits for two seasons. About 1000 tonnes of fruits were graded using this grader. The overall grading efficiency of the grader was 93-96 % for citrus, apple, sweet lemon and orange fruits. The capacity of the grader was 5 t/h at grading conveyor speed of 7 m/minute and there was no damage to the fruits while grading. The cost of the grader is Rs. 1 lakh. The cost of operation and energy consumption of the grader is Rs. 0.30/kg and 0.25 kW/t, respectively. This fruit grader has the advantages of high capacity, low energy consumption, low cost, minimal handling and tumbling of the fruits. The breakeven for the grader is worked out as 500 tonnes of fruits. It is most suited for commercial application.
A renewable fuel has advantages of saving the petroleum fuel and make environment pollution free when used on an engine. Different blends of the methyl ester of cottonseed oil with ethanol in the proportion of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 were prepared and compared with high speed diesel on the performance of a multi-cylinder CI engine. A 37.3 kW variable speed diesel engine was tested for performance on reference diesel fuel and selected blends. Engine performance on the blend containing 10 per cent ethanol in terms of brake power, indicated mean effective pressure, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature was almost equal or had better performance than diesel. On an average, brake thermal efficiency was increased up to 10% as ethanol blending ratio increased in the methyl ester of cottonseed oil (at 10% ethanol mix) at full load condition.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of sugar syrup concentrations (15-30 oB), time (10-15 min) and temperature (80-100 oC) of thermal processing on various attributes i.e. acidity, ascorbic acid, overall acceptability and SPC. Canned mango slices contain 20 oB sugar syrup and thermally processed at 100 oC for 10 min results in good quality product. Processed mango slices can be stored at ambient storage condition (30±2 °C) for one year. Key words: Preservation of mango slices, Canning of mango slices, Sugar syrup concentration, Thermal processing of canned mango slices
Transplanting of paddy is a labour intensive operation, requiring about 300-350 man-h/ha, which is roughly 25 per cent of the total labour requirement for the crop. Transplanted paddy require low seed rate (50 kg/ha) as compared to other methods like drilling (100 kg/ha) and broadcasting (130 kg/ha). Four-bar linkage mechanism of a power tiller operated 8-row rice transplanter was analyzed and accordingly modified. The maximum acceleration and velocity at modified link lengths were found to be 1928.40 cm/s2 and 140.10 cm/s respectively at 125 rev/min crank speed. Total distance travelled by the finger in the vertical direction was found to be 20.05 cm. A manually operated new model of 2 - row rice transplanter was developed using the modified four-bar linkages and tested in the puddled field. The average hill-to-hill spacing, depth of planting, no. of seedlings per hill, height of seedlings, missing hills and visible damage were found to be 21.68 cm, 6.98 cm, 3.68, 20.21 cm, 0.085 and 0.27 respectively. The missing hills and floating hills were found to be 8.54 per cent and 3.66 per cent respectively. The actual field capacity and the efficiency of the developed rice transplanter were found to be 0.14 ha / day (8 hrs) and 85.5% respectively.
In hill agriculture, bullocks are mainly used for ploughing with traditional wooden hal and puddling with Mai for not more than 30-40 days in a year. These age-old tools and implements to not only consume more time and labour but also incur higher cost of operation. The local hill plough called ‘hal’ used by most of the farmers is made of Banjh/Utish wood which needs frequent replacement of different parts with life span of 4 to 5 years. To overcome these problems, a bullock operated ‘Six-in-one tillage outfit’ made of steel was designed, developed and patented under the ICAR National Professor Scheme at Pantnagar. The feasibility trials of this outfit when working as a Jet plough, Fertilizer applicator, Seed drill, Ridger and Potato digger were conducted at ICAR-VPKAS, Almora experimental farm as well as at farmers’ field during 2012-13. The field capacity of Jet plough, Seed drill, Ridger and Potato digger was found to be 0.02, 0.035, 0.05 and 0.042 ha/h, respectively. In case of ploughing with Jet plough an average draft of 0.55 kN was observed with soil inversion of 26.4% as most of the residues were retained at the surface. The highest yield of wheat (6.14 t/ha) was obtained when fertilizer was placed at 5-10 cm depth with fertilizer applicator of outfit before sowing. The ridger and potato digger were found feasible to be used manually in small plots. The ‘Pant-ICAR animal drawn six-in-one tillage outfit’ was recommended to hill farmers for enhanced annual utilizatio
A mechatronic based planter cum fungicide/chemical applicator was designed and developed. It mainly consisted of Infrared (IR) obstacle detection sensors placed inside the seed delivery tube to detect the seed and an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to receive and process the sensors signals and to activate the corresponding solenoid valves to discharge the fungicide amount at right time and right place. The developed ECU mainly consisted of an Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller to receive, process the sensors data and activate, three relay switches for activation of corresponding solenoid valves. The IR sensors and developed ECU was tested under laboratory and field condition and found satisfactory. With this system, both the operations such as planting and fungicide application can be done simultaneously which leads to reduction in cost of cultivation, saving of time and chemical consumption thereby reduce the environmental pollution.
In this study, GIS and a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) have been utilized for estimation of morphological parameters of Morna river catchment. This was developed using the Visual Basic for Application (VBA) language based on the Arc objects technology developed by the Environmental System Research Institute (ESRI). Several morphometric parameters have been computed and analyzed viz.; linear aspects such as stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, stream length ratio; areal aspects such as drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor, constant of channel maintenance; relief aspects such as relief, relief ratio, relative relief, ruggedness number and length of overland flow. Impacts of morphometric parameters on flash flood characteristics have been also investigated. The presence of the maximum number of the first order segments shows that the basin is subjected to erosion and also that some areas of the basin are characterized by variations in lithology and topography. The form factor is 0.25 and circulatory ratio is 0.43 which suggests elongated type of catchment. Elongation ratio is 0.54 which indicates that watershed has high relief and steep slope. The estimated catchment characteristics may be useful to stimulate hydrological responses of the catchment.