Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (EAAE) method is among the emerging technologies and eco-friendly process for oil extraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil extraction methods and packaging material on shelf life of maize germ oil. Maize germ oil extraction was done by EAAE and solvent extraction method. HDPE and glass bottles were used as packaging materials. Quality characteristics evaluated were acid number, pH value, total phenolics content, colour change, unsaponifiable matter, saponification value, peroxide value and density at 15-day intervals for 90 days of storage period. The quality characteristics of oil changed with the passage of storage periods, and maximum change upto 190 % increase in peroxide value occurred when oil was solvent extracted and stored in HDPE bottle. The quality parameters of EAAE extracted oil were superior to solvent extracted oil. During storage acid number, pH, total phenolics, unsaponifiable matter and peroxide value of oil were significantly affected (P< 0.05) by packaging material, storage period and method of oil extraction.
Soy protein isolate (SPI) were obtained through ultrafiltration using 10 kDa hollow fibre cartridge, 117.21 kPa trans-membrane pressure and 3.5 volume concentration ratio. SPI prepared by ultrafiltration possessed highest protein content (88±0.3 %) and 91.09±0.84 % nitrogen solubility index (NSI) as compared to 84±0.5 % protein content and 19.29±0.74 % NSI for acid precipitated and 85±0.5 % protein content for commercially available SPI. Ultra filtered SPI also possessed highest value of emulsion stability (ES) of 51.96±1.42 %, whereas commercially available SPI exhibited the least value of 48.38±0.015 per cent. Highest value of oil absorption capacity (OAC) was 2.15±0.04 g.g-1 of protein for ultra-filtered, followed by 1.94±0.01 g.g-1 of protein for commercially available, and 1.73±0.04g.g-1 of protein for acid precipitated SPI. The hydrophilic lipophilic index (HLI) values for both ultra-filtrated and commercial SPIs were more than 2, indicating hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of proteins. However, water absorption capacity (WAC) and emulsion capacity were less for ultra-filtered sample as compared to commercially available counterpart. Commercially available SPI had highest value of 6.84±0.08 ml.g-1 of protein, whereas it was least at 1.67±0.016 ml.g-1 of protein for acid precipitated SPI
Rice milling process refers to the removal of husk and bran layers from the paddy grain. Proper machine settings in relation to physical and engineering properties of paddy are necessary for efficient milling operations. The present research work was aimed at incorporating modifications in a rice rubber roll sheller of modern rice mill for better control on its operation. A microcontroller-based electronic device was developed to quantify the clearance between the rubber rolls and feed opening of the rubber roll sheller. The values were displayed on seven-segment display units. A mechanical system to suit automation was also developed to automatically control the feed rate of feed hopper of the rubber roll sheller. The device was designed to read from 0 - 72 mm feed opening gap with least count of 0.075 mm, and rolls clearance from 0 mm to 21 mm with least count of 0.01 mm.
Arsenic is a toxic element present in groundwater causing severe health issues, which require proper treatment before using groundwater for drinking purpose. A study was conducted to remove arsenic trioxide [As (III)] from groundwater using iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS). Batch study was conducted as a function of contact time (30 and 120 min), flow rate (1, 2, 4 and 7 l.h-1), thickness of filter media (50, 75 and 100 mm) for initial arsenic concentration (0.10 and 0.25 mg.l-1). Surface characteristics study of IOCS was done using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infra-red, energy dispersive X-Ray and X-Ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of iron oxide on the surface of coated sand, Fourier transformation infra-red analysis showed the chemical bonding of iron at 525 cm-1 and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis showed 20.76 % of iron on coated sand. During study, maximum As(III) removal was 100 % for initial concentration of 0.25 mg.l-1 and 0.10 mg.l-1, respectively, for contact time of 120 min at flow rate of 1 l.h-1 for 100 mm thickness of filter material. Results of the batch study suggested that IOCS can be effectively used to achieve low level of arsenic in drinking water.
Knowledge of geomorphologic characteristics is necessary for management of land and water resources in a watershed. These characteristics for Patiala-Ki-Rao watershed, located in Shivalik foot-hills of Punjab, were assessed using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS). The form factor (0.27), circulatory ratio (0.53) and elongation ratio (0.59) indicated an elongated shape of the watershed, which might result in low-peaked hydrograph. Drainage characteristics of the watershed, namely drainage density (1.58 km.km-2), drainage texture (6.4 number.km-1), mean bifurcation ratio (2.4) and stream frequency (4.36 number.km-2) indicated quick disposal and low retention of runoff. Slope was less than 10 % in 21.04 km2 (41 % of watershed area), and 63.57 % and 16.39 % areas of the watershed were categorized as forest and agricultural lands, respectively. Furthermore, suitable runoff potential zones were identified by integrating thematic layers of slope, soil texture and land-use using GIS and multi-criteria decision making techniques. The high, moderate and low runoff potential zones covered 13.74 km2 (26.73 %), 21.87 km2 (42.55 %), and 15.79 km2 (30.72 %) areas, respectively. The moderate to high runoff potential zones were mostly situated towards the upstream portion, whereas runoff potential was less in the downstream portion. Therefore, water harvesting and conservation treatment planning in the watershed is necessary for sustainable livelihood of the inhabitants.
A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of various land management practices on runoff, soil loss and infiltration under simulated rainfall conditions. A prototype rainfall simulator was designed and tested in the laboratory to simulate rainfall at 100 mm.h-1 intensity over different land management practices. The effect of five land management practices on runoff, infiltration and soil loss were evaluated for a set of rainfall intensity (100 mm.h-1), rainfall duration (15 min) and raindrop size/ pore size of the nozzle (3.5 mm). The considered management practices were intense tillage land cover, zero or no-tillage land cover, minimum tillage land cover, perennial grass system and urban environment. Perennial grasses were found to be the best management practices to minimize the surface runoff and soil loss with increase in infiltration rate. Experimental results showed that perennial vegetation produced minimum runoff (0.2 l), very small soil loss (4.99 kg.ha-1) and maximum infiltration rate (117.67 mm.h-1), whereas urban environment (concrete surface) produced maximum runoff (3.7 l), minimum infiltration rate (0.1 mm.h-1) and minimum sediment loss (0.08 kg.ha-1).